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  1. Invasive Plants in Horticulture and Aquarium Trade
  2. Invasive Plant Policies and Regulation
  3. Invasive Plant Species Risk Assessments for Regulation
  4. Horticultural Codes of Conduct
  5. Invasive Plants in Horticulture

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Invasive Plants in Horticulture and Aquarium Trade

Azan, S., Bardecki, M., & Laursen, A. E. (2015). Invasive aquatic plants in the aquarium and ornamental pond industries: a risk assessment for southern Ontario (Canada). Weed Research, 55(3), 249–259.

Beaury, E.M., Patrick, M., & Bradley, B. A. (2021). Invaders for sale: the ongoing spread of invasive species by the plant trade industry. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 19(10), 550–556.

Coombs, G., Gilchrist, D., & Watson, P. (2020). An assessment of the native and invasive horticultural plants sold in the mid-Atlantic region. Native Plants Journal, 21(1), 74–82. 

Cronin, K., Kaplan, H., Gaertner, M., Irlich, U. M., & Timm Hoffman, M. (2017). Aliens in the nursery: assessing the attitudes of nursery managers to invasive species regulations. Biological Invasions, 19(3), 925–937.

Drew, J. Anderson, N., & Andow, D. (2010). Conundrums of a complex vector for invasive species control: a detailed examination of the horticultural industry. Biological Invasions, 12(8), 2837–2851.

Duncan, R. & Bertelsmeier, C. (2021). Time lags and the invasion debt in plant naturalisations. Ecology Letters, 24(7), 1363–1374.

Halford, M., Heemers, L., Mathys, C., Vanderhoeven, S., & Mahy, G. (2011). Socio-Economic Survey on Invasive Ornamental Plants in Belgium. Final Report AlterIAS. University of Liège Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech. 

Humair, F., Humair, L., Kuhn, F., & Kueffer, C. (2015). E-commerce trade in invasive plants. Conservation Biology, 29(6), 1658–1665.

Mack, R. N., & Erneberg, M. (2002). The United States Naturalized Flora: Largely the Product of Deliberate Introductions. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 89(2), 176–189.

Maki, K. & Galatowitsch, S. (2004). Movement of invasive aquatic plants into Minnesota (USA) through horticultural trade. Biological Conservation, 118(3), 389–396.

Marson, D., Cudmore, B., Drake, D.A.R., & Mandrak, N.E. (2009). Summary of a survey of aquarium owners in Canada. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Central and Artic Region.

Niemiera, A. (2011). Invasive plants and the nursery industry. AmeriNursery.

Peters, W. L., Meyer, M. H., & Anderson, N. O. (2006). Minnesota horticultural industry survey on invasive plants. Euphytica, 148(1), 75–86.

Reichard, S. H., & White, P. (2001). Horticulture as a Pathway of Invasive Plant Introductions in the United States. Bioscience, 51(2), 103–113.[0103:HAAPOI]2.0.CO;2

van Kleunen, M., Essl, F., Pergl, J., Brundu, G., Carboni, M., Dullinger, S., Verbrugge, L., Talluto, M. V., & Dehnen-Schmutz, K. (2018). The changing role of ornamental horticulture in alien plant invasions. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 93(3), 1421–1437.

Invasive Plant Policies and Regulation

Barbier, E.B., Knowler, D., Gwatipedza, J., Reichard, S. H., & Hodges, A. R. (2013). Implementing Policies to Control Invasive Plant Species. Bioscience, 63(2), 132–138.

Brière, S. C. (2009). Biosecurity: Protecting Canada from Invasive Alien Species. CFIA. 

Hulme, P., Brundu, G., Carboni, M., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Dullinger, S., Early, R., Kleunen, M. van, & Verbrugge, L. N. (2018). Integrating invasive species policies across ornamental horticulture supply chains to prevent plant invasions. The Journal of Applied Ecology, 55(1), 92–98.

Reichard, S. E. (1997). Prevention of Invasive Plant Introductions on National and Local Levels. In: Luken, J. O., Thieret, J.W. (eds) Assessment and Management of Plant Invasions. Springer Series on Environmental Management. Springer, New York, NY.

Reid, C., Hudgins, E., Guay, J.,Patterson, S., Medd, A., Cooke, S., & Bennett, J. (2021). The state of Canada’s biosecurity efforts to protect biodiversity from species invasions. FACETS, 6, 1922-1954.

Smith, A., Bazely, D. R., & Yan, N. (2013). Are legislative frameworks in Canada and Ontario up to the task of addressing invasive alien species? Biological Invasions, 16(7), 1325–1344.

Invasive Plant Species Risk Assessments for Regulation

APHIS Risk Assessments:

Azan, S., Bardecki, M., & Laursen, A. E. (2015). Invasive aquatic plants in the aquarium and ornamental pond industries: a risk assessment for southern Ontario (Canada). Weed Research, 55(3), 249–259.

Blackburn, T. M., Essl, F., Evans, T., Hulme, P. E., Jeschke, J. M., Kühn, I., Kumschick, S., Marková, Z., Mrugała, A., Nentwig, W., Pergl, J., Pyšek, P., Rabitsch, W., Ricciardi, A., Richardson, D. M., Sendek, A., Vilà, M., Wilson, J. R. U., Winter, M., … Bacher, S. (2014). A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts. PLoS Biology, 12(5), e1001850–e1001850.

Chai, S., Zhang, J., Nixon, A., & Nielsen, S. (2016). Using Risk Assessment and Habitat Suitability Models to Prioritise Invasive Species for Management in a Changing Climate. PloS One, 11(10), e0165292–e0165292.

Conser, C. Seebacher, L., Fujino, D. W., Reichard, S., & DiTomaso, J. M. (2015). The development of a plant risk evaluation (PRE) tool for assessing the invasive potential of ornamental plants. PloS One, 10(3), e0121053–e0121053.

Coville, W., Griffin, B. J., & Bradley, B. A. (2021). Identifying high-impact invasive plants likely to shift into northern New England with climate change. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 14(2), 57–63.

Cronk, Q., & Fuller, J. L. (2013). Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. Earthscan.

Culley, T.M., Dreisilker, K., Clair Ryan, M., Schuler, J. A., Cavallin, N., Gettig, R., Havens, K., Landel, H., & Shultz, B. (2022). The potential role of public gardens as sentinels of plant invasion. Biodiversity and Conservation.

Dehnen-Schmutz, K. & Conroy, J. (2018). Working with gardeners to identify potential invasive ornamental garden plants: testing a citizen science approach. Biological Invasions, 20(11), 3069–3077.

Gallagher, R. V., Randall, R. P., & Leishman, M. R. (2015). Trait differences between naturalized and invasive plant species independent of residence time and phylogeny. Conservation Biology, 29(2), 360–369.

Gantz, C.A., Mandrak, N.E. & Keller, R.P. (2013). Application of an Aquatic Plant Risk Assessment to Non-Indigenous Freshwater Plants in Trade in Canada. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2013/096 v + 31 p. 

Gordon, D. R., Gantz, C. A., Jerde, C. L., Chadderton, W. L., Keller, R. P., & Champion, P. D. (2012). Weed risk assessment for aquatic plants: modification of a New Zealand system for the United States. PloS One, 7(7), e40031–e40031.

Hawkins, C. L., Bacher, S., Essl, F., Hulme, P. E., Jeschke, J. M., Kühn, I., Kumschick, S., Nentwig, W., Pergl, J., Pyšek, P., Rabitsch, W., Richardson, D. M., Vilà, M., Wilson, J. R. U., Genovesi, P., & Blackburn, T. M. (2015). Framework and guidelines for implementing the proposed IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT). Diversity & Distributions, 21(11), 1360–1363.

McClay, A., Sissons, A., Wilson, C., & Davis, S. (2010). Evaluation of the Australian weed risk assessment system for the prediction of plant invasiveness in Canada. Biological Invasions, 12(12), 4085–4098.

Reichard, S. H., & Hamilton, C. W. (1997). Predicting Invasions of Woody Plants Introduced into North America. Conservation Biology, 11(1), 193–203.

Rockwell-Postel, M., Laginhas, B. B., & Bradley, B. A. (2020). Supporting proactive management in the context of climate change: prioritizing range-shifting invasive plants based on impact. Biological Invasions, 22(7), 2371–2383.

van Kleunen, M., Weber, E., & Fischer, M. (2010). A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species. Ecology Letters, 13(2), 235–245.

Venette, R. C., Kriticos, D. J., Magarey, R. D., Koch, F. H., Baker, R. H. A., Worner, S. P., Raboteaux, N. N. G., McKenney, D. W., Dobesberger, E. J., Yemshanov, D., Barro, P. J. D., Hutchison, W. D., Fowler, G., Kalaris, T. M., & Pedlar, J. (2010). Pest Risk Maps for Invasive Alien Species: A Roadmap for Improvement. Bioscience, 60(5), 349–362.

Horticultural Codes of Conduct

Canadian Council on Invasive Species. (2019). National Voluntary Code of Conduct for the Ornamental Horticulture Industry Canadian Council on Invasive Species. National Horticulture Invasive Plant Working Group.

American Public Gardens Association. (2002). Invasive Plant Species Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Botanic Gardens & Arboreta.

Heywood, V.H. (2014), Voluntary Codes of conduct for botanic gardens and horticulture and engagement with the public. EPPO Bull, 44: 223-231.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. (2009). PM 3/74(1): EPPO guidelines on the development of a Code of conduct on horticulture and invasive alien plants. Bulletin OEPP, 39(3), 263–266.

Heywood, V., & Brunel, S. (2008). Code of conduct on horticulture and invasive alien plants. Council of Europe.

Baskin, Y. (2002). The Greening of Horticulture: New Codes of Conduct Aim to Curb Plant Invasions. Bioscience, 52(6), 464–471.[0464:TGOHNC]2.0.CO;2

Burt, J.W., Muir, A. A., Piovia-Scott, J., Veblen, K. E., Chang, A. L., Grossman, J. D., & Weiskel, H. W. (2007). Preventing horticultural introductions of invasive plants: potential efficacy of voluntary initiatives. Biological Invasions, 9(8), 909–923.

Videos / Webinars on Invasive Plants in Horticulture

Beaury, E. M., Patrick, M., & Bradley, B. A. (2020). Invaders for sale: The ongoing spread of invasive species by the plant trade industry. ESA, 2020.

Bethke, T. (2021). NISAW 2021- Part I: Science, Policy, and Solutions for Invasive Species. North American Invasive Species Management Association (NAISMA).

Bradley, B. (2021). Breaking Down Barriers to Proactive & Consistent Regulation of Invasive Plants. University of Massachusetts.

Cirillo, C., Cassin, C., & Dutkiewicz, D. (2021). Unpacking the Programs and Policies of Invasive Free Gardening in Ontario. Invasive Species Centre.

Chris, E. (2018). The Green Pathway to Invasion: Ornamental Invasive Plants – 2018 Four Seasons Gardening Webinar. University of Illinois Extension Horticulture.

Dreisilker, K, & Culley, T. (2018). Public Gardens as Sentinels Against Invasive Species. American Public Gardens.

Evans, C. (2020). The Green Pathway to Invasive Ornamental Invasive Plants. North American Invasive Species Management Association (NAISMA).