Canadian Invasive Plant Lists

Invasive plants don't respect borders

Plants regulated by the federal government are largely those that impact agriculture and are regulated as contaminants of seed. Very few invasive ornamental plants are regulated despite the many threats they pose to our economy, environment, and human health.

Regulations vary greatly by jurisdiction, with several provinces and territories having no regulations. Overall, there are 238 plants regulated by Canada and the provinces. The US border states regulate over 500 plants and include many more ornamental plants.

We compiled a list of high-risk plants currently regulated in parts of Canada and in the 13 US Border States. We have added lists of high-risk aquatic plants identified by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans and compared these lists to the plants that currently appear in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) Weed Risk Assessment documents. Based on these lists, we have identified over 90 high-priority plants that should be assessed or reassessed by the CFIA. Here is the file containing those spreadsheets (download here). (As we have likely made errors in the arduous compilation process, you can confirm data using the primary sources found on our Province and territory regulations page and State regulations page.

Additionally there are many invasive ornamental plants that are not currently regulated. Some of those appear on the lists developed by plant councils below. Some of the ornamental terrestrial and aquatic invasive plants currently identified by invasive plants councils across Canada and or included in the Invasive Alien Plants in Canada – Technical Report are listed below.

This is a partial list of known threats across Canada as identified by Canadian authorities and plants that are regulated by multiple states bordering Canada (indicated by bold type face):

velvetleaf (Abuliton theophrasti)

maples: Amur, Norway, & sycamore (Acer ginnala, A. platanoides, & A. pseudoplatanus)

sweet flag, European (Acorus calamus)

goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria)

tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) 

garlic mustard (Ailliaria petiolata)

gugleweed (Ajuga reptans)

lady’s mantle (Alchemilla mollis)

alder, European black (Alnus glutinosa)

porcelainberry (Ampelopsis glandulosa)

angelica, woodland (Angelica sylvestris)

chervil, wild (including ‘Raven’s wing’)  (Anthriscus sylvestris)

mosquitofern, pinnate or feathered (Azolla pinnata) 

barberry: Japanese & common (Berberis thunbergii, B. vulgaris)

butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii)

flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus)

fanwort, Carolina (Cabomba caroliniana)

bellflower, creeping (Campanula rapunculoides

peashrub, Siberian (Caragana arborescens)

bittersweet, oriental (Celastrus orbiculatus)

knapweeds: bachelor’s buttons, big, & mountain bluet (Centaurea cyanus, C. macrocephala, C. montana)

clematis, yellow (Clematis tengutica)

lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis)

swamp crop, Australian (Crassula helmsii)

hound’s tongue (Cynoglossum officinale)

flatsedge (Cyperus difformis)

broom (Cystitis scoparius)

spurge-laurel (Daphne laureola)

foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)

viper’s-bugloss (Echium vulgare)   

elodea, Brazilian (Egeria densa)

hyacinth, water (Eichhornia crassipes) 

olive, Russian and autumn (Elaeagnus angustifolia & E. umbellata

euonymus, winged & winter creeper (Euonymus alatus, E. fortunei)

spurges – leafy, myrtle, and cypress (Euphorbia esula, E. myrsinites, E. cyparissias

buckthorn, glossy (Frangula alnus

mannagrass, floating & great    Glyceria fluitans & G. maxima

baby’s breath (Gypsophila paniculata)

ivy, English (Hedera helix)

daylily, common (Hemerocallis fulva)

hogweed, giant (Heracleum mantegazzianum

dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis) 

hawkweeds, introduced (Hieracium spp.)

sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides)

St. John’s wort, common (Hypericum perforatum)

hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata)

frog-bit, European, & American (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, & H. spongia)

water poppy (Hydrocleys nymphoides)

hygrophila, east Indian (Hygrophila polysperma) 

St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum

holly, English (Ilex aquifolium)

balsam, Himalayan; & small flower (Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora)

cogongrass (Imperata brasiliensis & I. cylindrica)

iris, yellow flag (Iris pseudacorus) 

dyers’ woad (Isatis tinctoria) 

oxygenweed, African   (Lagarosiphon major   

lamium, yellow archangel & purple (Lamium galeobdolon, L. purpureum) 

daisy, oxeye (Leucanthemum vulgare)

privet, border (Ligustrum obtusifolium)

toadflax (Linaria dalmatica, L. vulgaris, L. genistifolia subsp. dalmatica

honeysuckles: Japanese, Amur, Morrow’s, Tatarian, & Bell’s, fly (Lonicera japonica, tatarica, L. maackii, L. morrowii, L x bella, L. xylosteum)

creeping Jenny (Lysimachia nummularia)

loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria, L. virgatum

water-clover,  European (Marsilea quadrifolia)

clover, white sweet (Melilotus alba)

grass: miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis, M. sacchariflorus)

mulberry, white (Morus albą)

watermilfoil: parrot feather, twoleaf, & Eurasian  (Myriophyllum aquaticum, M. spicatum, M. heterophyllum*)

star of Bethlehem (Ornithogalum nutans)

waternymph, brittle (Najas minor)

nasturtium, yellowcress (Nasturtium officinale)

stonewort, starry (algea) (Nitellopsis obtusa)

waterlily, European (Nymphaea alba

floating heart, yellow (Nymphoides peltata

duck lettuce (Ottelia alismoides)

knotweed, Himalayan (Persicaria wallichii)

grass, torpedograss (Panicum repens)

smartweed, marsh-pepper (Persicaria hydropiper)

grass, canary reed (Phalaris arundinacea)

cork tree, Amur (Phellodendron amurense) 

phragmites (nonnative); reed, common (Phragmites australis var australis)

hawkweed, orange (Pilosella aurantiaca)

pine, Scotch (Pinus sylvestris

water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes)

poplar, silver (Populus alba)  

cinquefoil, sulfur  (Potentilla recta)

pear, Callery (Pyrus calleryana)

pondweed, curly-leaf (Potamogeton crispus)    

cherry, European bird (Prunus padus)

knotweeds: Japanese, giant, Bohemian (Reynoutria japonica syn Fallopia japonica, R. sachalinensis, R. × bohemica)

pilewort; celandine, lesser (Ranunculus ficaria)

buckthorn, common (Rhamnus cathartica)

locust, black (Robinia pseudoacacia)

rose,  multiflora & rugose (Rosa multiflora & R. rugosa)

blackberry, wild complex (Rubus fruticosus)  

arrowhead, giant (Sagittaria sagittifolia)

salvinia, giant & common (Salvinia auriculata, S. biloba, S. minima, S. molesta, & S. natans)

bulrush, ricefield (Schoenoplectiella mucronata)

stonecrop, goldmoss (Sedum acre)

spirea, false (Sorbaria sorbifolia)

mountain ash, European (Sorbus aucuparia)

water soldier (Stratiotes aloides)

comfrey (Symphytum officinale)

tamarisk; saltcedar (Tamarix spp. T. ramosissima, T. chiniensis, T. parviflora or any cultivars, variety, or hybrids)

tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)

waterchestnut, European (Trapa natans)

cattail, narrow leaf, & white (Typha angustifolia, T. x glauca)

valerian, common (Valeriana officinalis)

grass, eel (Vallisneria spiralis)

cranberry, European high-bush (Viburnum opulus)

periwinkle (Vinca major, & V. minor)

swallow-wort, black & Louise’s; dog-strangling vine      (Vincetoxicum nigrum; syn. Cynanchum louiseae & V. rossicum)

Wildflower Mixes that contain invasive species

*native and introduced variants

Plant lists and councils:



Atlantic Canada:

British Columbia:



Northwest Territories:




North America: